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Tourist Attractions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the region

 

Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, Visoko

 

Dr. Sci. Sam Semir Osmanagich                                  

Founder of the “Archaeological Park:

Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun” Foundation

Member of the Archaeological Society

of Alexandria

Foreign member of the Russian

Academy of Natural Science

 

download Word File

DISCOVERY AND SCIENTIFIC RECOGNITION OF

THE BOSNIAN VALLEY OF THE PYRAMIDS

 

I first came to the town of Visoko, 25 km northwest from the Bosnian capital city of Sarajevo, in April 2005.  My intention was to visit local Museum, but what caught my attention was the regular look of the hill towering the town. This hill, called Visocica, had four sides, they were triangular and as per compass the sides were oriented toward the cardinal points (North-South, East-West). Based on my experience with hundreds of pyramids in the World that I visited (Egypt, China, Peru...) orientation is important element in pyramid construction.

 

Regular geometry and orientation were enough for me to conclude that under the layer of soil and vegetation man-made structure was hidden. I climbed to the top

and I saw another hill completely covered by forest, but three triangular faces and orientation toward the cardinal points were present, as well. Those two hills I

named Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun and Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon. I started preliminary geological surveys and archaeological probes the same year. I wrote

the book about the discovery of the first European pyramids and announced the news to the press by the end of October of 2005.

Photo 1: Bosnian Pyramid of

the Sun, Visoko, Bosnia-Herzegovina, with it’s height

of 220 meters is the tallest pyramidal structure of the ancient World; preliminary

report on the rectangular

base: 440x660 meters.

 

BOSNIAN VALLEY OF THE PYRAMIDS

 

Due to the enormous interest of the public I decided to establish non-profit “Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun” Foundation for further geo-archaeological investigation. The five-year comprehensive geo-archaeological research (2005-2010) points to the existence of huge construction complex in

Visoko Valley. This complex was named the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids and included the following structures:

 

-          Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun (former “Visocica Hill”)

-          Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon (former “Pljesevica Hill”)

-          Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon (former “Buci Hill”)

-          Temple of Earth (former “Krstac Hill”)

-          Bosnian Pyramid of Love (former “Cemerac Hill”)

-          Tumulus in Vratnica (former “Toprakalija Hill” in Vratnica)

-          Structure “Dolovi” (Vratnica)

-          Underground tunnel complex “Ravne” (entrance to the tunnel 2.9 km from the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun)

-          Underground tunnel network “KTK” (entrance to the tunnel 1 km from

the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun)

 

Satellite imaging of the local area in the central part of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Landsat, Radarsat, Hyperion, Ikonos, courtesy of Dr. Amer Smailbegovic), indicated that there are five hills which show apparent geospatial anomalies where two or more sides are triangular. All of the aforementioned hills exhibit triangular sides and some have elements of stairs and step features on the sides with flat plateaus on the top. In the case of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, three out of four sides

exhibit evidence of geometric features. Geologic evidence is not indicative of any significant faulting or the processes of the glaciations in the area that would otherwise affect the existence, geometry and texture of these sides.

 

The measurements made by the Geodetic Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina indicate that the sides of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun are exactly aligned with the cardinal sides of the world  (North-South, East-West). The North side is oriented towards stellar North (like the Great Pyramid of Egypt), in parallel with the position of the North Star.

 

The results of the thermal inertia obtained from ASTER thermal detector (resolution 60m) suggest that the observed targets may be comprised of less consolidated material and tend to “cool faster” respective to their surroundings (presumed denser). The findings would be consistent with initial field observations noted in the Preliminary Geological Report of 2005, and also recent excavations on site. The results appear consistent with what would be expected from an artificial structure – lesser density materials, porosity, internal cavities/chambers, hallways etc. all contribute to an increased heat loss.

 

Photo 2: Apparent Thermal

Inertia (Courtesy of Dr. Amer Smailbegovic).

 

The elevation that is shown on this high resolution interval contour map indicates an even overall slope and a stair-step design, observable on the sides of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun.

 

Photo 3:  3-D geodetic contour interval map of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun

(Courtesy: Geodetic Institute of Bosnia-Herzegovina).

 

Photo 4: 3-D Contour map of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun

(Courtesy of Geodetic Institute of Bosnia-Herzegovina).

 

The existence of these artificial structures is also reinforced by numerous statements of the military personnel stationed on the Pyramid itself and subjected to heavy shelling. They have reported unusual ground vibrations, echoing and ground movement whenever the mound was hit by the artillery fire during the war operations in Bosnia 1992-95. This acoustic evidence suggests that cavities/chambers indeed exist within the structure.

 

During winter 2006/2007, two independent teams of geo-radar experts from Germany (LGA Bautechnick GMBH with Dr. Andreas Hasenstab as a team leader) and Serbia (Institute for Geophysics from University of Belgrade with Dr. Dejan Vuckovic as a head of the research), concluded that a total of 44 anomalies were found in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids and included terraces, steps, shaped stone structures, passageways etc.

 

Photo 5: Geo-radar experts from German company LGA Bautechnick GMBH confirmed 44 anomalies - man-made structures within 18 meters in depth throughout Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids.

 

Photo 6: German geo-radar equipment shows possible passageways within

the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun.

 

Three main pyramids in the Bosnian Pyramid Valley (Sun, Moon, Dragon) form an equilateral triangle. The Cadastral Office from the Town of Visoko performed GPS measurements of the pyramids and determined that all angles are symmetric (60 degrees). Their measurements show that the distances among all three pyramids are the same – 2.170 m. with less than 2% error, verifying the planned approach of the builders.

Photo 7: Topographic chart (1:24.000) shows Bosnian pyramid of the Sun, Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon and Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon forming an equilateral triangle (Courtesy of Cadastral Office, Municipality of Visoko).

 

 The “Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun” Foundation has spent over 320.000 working hours on archaeological excavation, sample testing and radiocarbon dating. Excava. This fact alone made this project the largest archaeological project in the world.

 

BOSNIAN PYRAMID OF THE SUN

 

The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun is completely covered by soil and vegetation. During the 1950s and 1960s, local government organized tree planting activities. Trees managed to grow only on the bottom half of the Pyramid.

 

Thickness of the soil on Western, Northern and Eastern side of the Pyramid varies from the top (20 cm) to the bottom (1.5 meter). This is due to the erosion. The Southern side, which seams to be damaged, has a soil layer of 3-6 meters. That is the reason why this side has lost its regularity. Physical material evidence of shaped and well preserved stone monoliths were unearthed during the ongoing geo-archaeological campaign in 2006-2010.

 

Photo 8: Excavation probes at the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun

 

Photo 9: Stone monoliths on the Northern side of the Bosnian pyramid of the Sun – superstructure of the pyramid - outer facing of the pyramid.

 

Samples of the stone blocks were analysed in four domestic Bosnian scientific institutions (Institute for Civil Engineering in Tuzla, Institute for materials at the University of Zenica, Geoprojekt Company from Tuzla and Institute for Construction and Materials at the University of Sarajevo) and two institutes from Western Europe: “Politecnico di Torino from Italy and Institute for Geopolymers from France. Hardness of over 100 MPs and presence of the calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate point into the direction of ancient synthetic material – first concrete! According to Prof. Muhamed Pasic from University of Zenica “moderately baked clay crushed with water possesses binding properties”. It has been the basis for Roman cement as well.

 

Photo 10:  Concrete blocks stowed one on top of another. Four rows of blocks (40-45 cm thick) are followed by clay layer (45 cm) and another two rows of blocks.

 

Photo 11: Concrete blocks form the same slope in all directions.

Photo 12: North-East corner of the Pyramid clearly shows construction properties.

Photo 13: Causeway that leads to the top of the Bosnian pyramid of the Sun is paved by the sandstone plates; pyramid is built from entirely different materials. Aerial photo shows corners between West and North, and North and East. Top of the Pyramid is flat like pyramids in China, Mexico or Egypt.

 

BOSNIAN PYRAMID OF THE MOON

 

With its height of 190 meters, Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon is the world's second largest: next to the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun (220 meters) and higher than Khufu's Great Pyramid of Egypt (148 meters). It is a three-sided pyramid with the plateau coming from the East, leading to the top of the structure. Other sides (North, West, South) match the cardinal points. For the construction of this pyramid, sandstone plates and tiles were used together with the clay as a constructive material.

Photo 14: Shadow of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun form the parallel “pyramid” next to the Bosnian pyramid of the Moon on a day of summer solstice (June 21st) just before the sunset.

Photo 15: Shadow of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun completely covers Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon just before the sunset on August 20th.

Photo 16: Archaeological field work on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon shows that under layers of soil and wood exists a huge stone/clay structure - three-sided “terraced” pyramid.

 

Photo 17: Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon, discovery of the vertical wall, one meter deep, built from sandstone plates.

 

Photo 18: Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon, discovery of the rectangular structure in 2006, approx. 3x2 meters, built from sandstone plates.

 

 

According to Professor Muhamed Pasic of University of Zenica (Institute for Materials), who was heading a 3-year long lab testing of 100 samples from the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon “… sandstone plates on Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon are homogenous formations from silicate origin materials - quartz sand and from calcium-magnesium carbonates with total content of about 84 mass %, while other components are ferrous, potassium, sodium and titanium oxides. At this grade of natural silicate materials with density 2.6 g/cm3, it is proven that its volume mass increases into direction of sedimentation and that in the same direction, decrease its porosity, as well as waterproof properties and that increases strength properties.” He concluded: “We have opposite trend on excavated mosaics on the plateau and on Pyramid foothill. Such geological anomaly confirms statement that mosaics are formed by composition of splitting and shaping plates extracted from different depths of quarry.”

Photo 19: Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon, archaeological probe # 20, 120 meters from the bottom: rectangular sandstone plates compose one of the terraces at the Western slope.

Photo 20: Shaped sandstone plates, stowed on top of each other, discovered one meter deep at the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon.

Photo 21: Shaped sandstone tiles discovered one meter deep on Western slope of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon; sandstone is common construction material in Bosnia used today.
Photo 22: Paved terrace close to the top of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon, Eastern causeway; sandstone plates are stowed in several rows.
Photo 23: Section of the Causeway that leads to the top of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon shows rows of sandstone plates with layers of clay in between them (probably served as the insulation, adhesive and waterproof material).
Photo 24: Terrace on Western side of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon – it was uncovered under one meter of soil and clay;  it shows slope climbing up of 8 degrees from North to South direction; also, there is another slope of 8 degrees going down in West-East direction.

 

NETWORK OF UNDERGROUND TUNNELS

 

Numerous field findings suggest that an extensive tunnel network exists in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. It is hypothesized by Principal investigator dr. Semir Sam Osmanagich that the tunnel system connects all of the colossal objects, water wells and other structures of importance. The current excavations in progress have already presented with findings of several shaped monoliths in the tunnels. Hundreds of meters of tunnels have been secured by wooden support. The tunnels were definitively not the mining shafts as no tools, coal, silver, gold or any other worthy material were found.

 

Photo 25: Underground tunnel “Ravne” is built in conglomerate material.
Photo 26: Distance from the tunnel entrance to the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun is 2.9 km (NW-SE direction). Work is focused on cleaning and securing the main tunnel by the wooden support.

Photo 27: During the process of cleaning, a lot of side tunnels were discovered. Side tunnels lay at 90 degrees to the main tunnel. All of them are blocked with drywalls and fill-in material brought from the outside.

Photo 28: Drywall detail in underground tunnel complex “Ravne”. No connective material has been used. Stones are rounded, typical for river beds.

Photo 29: Apparent shaped sandstone monolith found at the 160th meter of the underground tunnel in Ravne, under a thick layer of conglomerate and sand indicating its fairly old age of emplacement. The weight of the monolith is presumed to be over 7 metric tones.

Photo 30: Potential ancient inscriptions found on sandstone monolith “K-1” in the underground tunnel network “Ravne”.

Photo 31: Carved symbols on the surface of monolith “K-1”

discovered after removal of conglomerate.

Photo 32: Discovery of the monolith “K-2” under the conglomerate

 at 175th meter from the entrance.

Photo 33: Monolith “K-2” completely cleaned in August 2008; it’s sitting on top of sandstone plates that make bedding for the monolith. There is a cement material between the bedding and monolith. It’s a clear proof that this location was picked up by builders for some reason (ceremonial?) and sandstone monolith was positioned here. Dowsers from Italy claimed that 22 meters under the monolith, exists a crossing of two underground water flows.

Photo 34: Discovery and cleaning of the debris in the underground tunnel “KTK”;

October 2007 – February 2008. Tunnel was 3 meters high and 2.5 meters wide.

Photo 35: “KTK” underground tunnel after cleaning; total of 150 meters were cleaned and secured. Main tunnel is located between two rivers (river Bosna and river Fojnica) and goes in direction of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun.

 

TUMULUS IN VRATNICA

 

Pyramid complexes in the world consist of the pyramids, temples, step structures, underground tunnels, etc. In a case of the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids, same building material is found in an area of 40 sq. km.

 

Just 4 km from the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon, in a village Vratnica, two mounds have been excavated: “Toprakalija” and “Dolovi”. “Toprakalija” has a conical shape and it reminds one of tumulus in England. Two larger terraces have also been uncovered on “Toprakalija” mound and they show the presence of the same textured plates and blocks as on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon, but larger in size.

 

Photo 36: “Toprakalija” mound in Vratnica, rounded shape like in a case of tumulus in England.

Photo 37: Excavation on “Toprakalija” mound revealed textured sandstone blocks and clay layers used as a constructive material.

Photo 38: Sandstone blocks reach the weight of over 20 tons; according to the analysis, the blocks consist of two layers: textured top layers, 8-10 cm thickness, base thickness 50-55 cm.

 

ARTIFACTS

 

Archaeological work is a slow process and requires a lot of patience. Figuring out answers to five questions: what, who, when, how and why may take decades in the case of the Bosnian pyramid complex. Certain important artifacts have been found at the different locations in Visoko valley. In the years to come, more will be discovered and we will get closer to the answers of this mysterious complex that is changing our understanding of the world history.

 

Photo 39: Fragments of the stone circle - (ceremonial table, wheel, part of the column?) discovered in “KTK” tunnel in 2007.

Photo 40: Sandstone plate with carved symbols discovered

in underground tunnel “Ravne” in 2008.

Photo 41: Sandstone foot, follows the anatomy of human foot, matches shoe number 36, discovered on the terrace at Tumulus in Vratnica; possible mold served as unit for measurement or artistic expression.

Photo 42: Stone “amulet”, discovered on the slope of the Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon, two types of stone combined.

Photo 43: Sandstone plate with carved symbols and lines, possible topography of the terrain -  discovered in 2006 at the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun.
Photo 44: “Tool-making mold”, discovered in underground tunnel complex “Ravne” in 2007.
Photo 45: Ceramic pyramid, discovered in the vicinity of the Bosnian pyramids in village Mostre, Visoko Municipality, by German archaeologists in October 2008, ornaments are triangles, carved on the walls of 4-sided pyramid with the flat top, age is projected at 6.500 years.

 

BOSNIAN PYRAMID PROJECT- CHRONOLOGY 2005-2010

 

YEAR 2005

 

-          April 2005 – Discovery of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun and Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon by Dr. sci. Sam Semir Osmanagich during his visit to town of Visoko in Central Bosnia. He claimed that man-made structures were hidden under the soil and vegetation in Visoko Valley.

-          August 2005 – Dr. Osmanagich hired local contractor and geologist to perform preliminary geological survey. First results show existence of geological anomalies and paved sandstone plateau

-          August 2005 – Dr. Osmanagich discovered an entrance to underground tunnel which locals called “ natural cave”. After first prospection, dr. Osmanagich hypothesized that huge underground tunnel network existed under the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. That claim was later confirmed during the excavation and cleaning process.

-          October 2005 – Dr. Osmanagich published the book “Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun – Discovery of the First European Pyramid” and announced to the World existence of the Pyramids of Sun and Moon and underground tunnel network at the press conference. Local media (state news agency FENA, Daily Avaz, TV stations) and world agencies (AP, France Press, Reuters) sent the news out: first European and biggest pyramids in the world have been discovered in Bosnia. Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun with its height of 220 meters and Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon (190 meters) are much higher than the Great Pyramid of Egypt (148 meters) or Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacan in Mexico (74 meters).

-          October/November – First excavations on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun run by dr. Osmanagich – great interest and publicity, thousands of people visiting the site

-          December – dr. Osmanagich established a non-profit and non-government “Archaeological Park: Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun” Foundation (more: www.bosnianpyramidofthesun.com) for the archaeological research and protection of cultural heritage.

 

YEAR 2006

 

-          Geo-Archaeological season lasted 200 days, from April to November, and it was the biggest archaeological project in the world. Foundation employed 100 workers (experts and diggers) and hundreds of volunteers who unearthed dozens of sections on both Sun and Moon pyramid, exposing shaped rectangular stone blocks and plates. Close to 250,000 visitors came to see the excavations of the first European pyramids. Bosnian President, Prime Minister, ministers, university professors and many others extended their support.

-          Several local archaeologists who never visited the site asked project to be stopped, claiming that “it was impossible that pyramids existed in Bosnia”. They seek and got the support from European Archaeological Association led by Dr. Anthony Harding, Dr. Predrag Novakovic and Dr. Blagoje Govedarica who signed several petitions to the Bosnian Government to halt the project in which they claimed that Foundation is “damaging medieval town”(?) Government formed the commission who rejected the claims as untrue and false.

-          Perfect orientation of the triangular sides of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun (North, East-West) was determined by the State Institute for Geodesy from Sarajevo (Eng. Enver Buza). Northern side of the Pyramid perfectly matches the location of the Northern Star (error 12 seconds only, Great Pyramid of Egypt has an error of 2 minutes).

-          Existence of three more pyramidal “hills” through the satellite imaging (later named by dr. Osmanagich as a Pyramid of the Bosnian Dragon, Temple of Earth and Bosnian Pyramid of Love) by geophysicist Dr. Amer Smailbegovic. He confirmed his findings by satellite thermal analysis (“quick heat loss”) and satellite radar analysis (passageways within the Northern side of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun).

-          Municipal Department for Urban Planning in Visoko (Eng. Emir Bukurevic) confirmed that three pyramids (Sun, Moon and Dragon), when their tops are connected by line, form an equilateral triangle with inner angles at 60 degrees and distance of 2.1 km (error +/- 2%)

-          Biologist Dr. Sulejman Redzic of University of Sarajevo confirmed that Mediterranean plants are found on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun because of higher temperature (5 degrees) – due to the hollow nature of the pyramid (existence of tunnels, inner chambers, etc.)

-          Pedologist Dr. Husnija Resulovic of University of Sarajevo confirmed that lab analysis show that soil that cover the pyramid was over 12.000 years old (all scientific reports at: www.icbp.ba)

-          Institute for Civil Engineering from Tuzla (run by Mr. Sci. Selim Beslagic) analyzed samples from the conglomerate blocks from the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun and concluded that they are with superior concrete-like properties; samples of the sandstone plates from the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon are of excellent quality as well; in both cases they were used as a construction material to build the structures

-          Egyptian geologist Dr. Aly Barakat, who came through the Egyptian Government to give his opinion about the site, after 42 days he spent in Bosnia, announced at the press conference in June that Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun is the combination of natural and anthropogenic forces – man has shaped existing hill to the geometry of pyramid, with four triangular sides and later coated with stone blocks. He called it first “primitive pyramid”.

-          Egyptologists Lammia El Hadidi and Dr. Muhamed Ibrahim Aly, after visiting the site, confirmed the artificiality of archaeological sites in Bosnia later that year.

 

YEAR 2007

 

-          Two entrances to the underground tunnels were discovered. Tunnels were flooded in distant past; clean up work started. For safety reasons the wooden support has been installed. Very soon it became obvious that the tunnels are built in pre-historical times. Lot of side tunnels and intersections, drywalls, megalithic blocks and carvings were discovered.

-          Team of four Egyptian experts officially (thru Egyptian Government) came to investigate project: Dr. Nabil Swelim (archaeologist and Egyptologist, discoverer of four pyramids in Egypt), Dr. Aly Barakat (geologist), Dr. Mona Fouad Ali (archaeologist from Cairo University) and Dr. Soliman Hamid (archaeologist from Cairo University). Conclusion after 15-day visit, which was announced publicly, was that the “Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun is the biggest pyramid in the world”.

-          Tumulus has been discovered in the vicinity of the pyramids with 20-ton stone blocks.

-          Bosnian scientist Dr. Mohamed Pasic of University of Zenica completed lab testing on several dozens of block and plate samples from the pyramids and concluded that they were artificially cut, transported and installed into the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon.  

-          Croatian scientist Dr. Ivan Simatovic performed geometrical analysis of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun proving its artificiality

-          Several analysis (Gabor Szakacs of Hungary, Dr. Muris Osmanagic of Bosnia and Paolo Stekel of Brazil) claim that carvings on megalithic blocks in the underground tunnels have similarity with the oldest European writings – Runic and Glozelian

-          Team from the Schmidt Institute (dr. Oleg Khavroshkin and dr. Vladislav Tsyplakov) from the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (Moscow) performed screening of seismic fields of the Bosnian pyramids and concluded that the results could be compared to Egyptian pyramids from Giza and they were showing the results of the artificial structures; seismic screening confirmed existence of the underground tunnels under the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun;

-          German leading geophysicists from LGA Bautechnik Institute with Dr. Andreas Hasenstab performed geo-radar screening of the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids finding 44 anomalies (underground passageways, paved areas, layers of stone blocks, etc.).

 

YEAR 2008

 

-          Organic material (piece of wood) was found in conglomerate material that covered megalithic block in the tunnel. Sample was radiocarbon tested in Kiel Lab in Germany (31,000 years old) and Gliwice Lab in Poland (34,000 years old). Shocking results warned that advanced human activities were present in central Bosnia at the same time like ingenious cave paintings in Spain and France (32,000 years ago). Physicist Dr. Anna Pazdur of Poland’s Silesian University announced the news at the Press Conference in Sarajevo in August of 2008

-          Number of archaeological artifacts has been found during the four years of excavations. Further cleaning in the underground tunnels confirmed huge artificial network from the pre-historical times.

-          Samples of core drilling from the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun and Vratnica tumulus have shown properties of the best quality concrete (analysis by Institute for Materials of the University of Zenica, Bosnia and Institute for Civil Engineering of the University of Sarajevo, Bosnia)

-          Institute for Materials and Construction, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, July 2008, dr. Azra Kurtovic, “hardness of the sample is 74 Mpa, water absorption 1,1% (modern concrete 3%), CaO 39,20%, sample shows the properties of the concrete”

-          First International Scientific Conference about the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids was held in Sarajevo on August 25-30, 2008. More than 50 experts from Egypt (20 leading archaeologists, geologists and Egyptologists,), China, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Poland, Croatia, UK, Austria, Bosnia and Montenegro concluded/recommended: (1) that the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids is “very important archaeological locations which require further multidisciplinary research,” (2) that “Second Scientific Conference is to be held in two years that should getter pyramid specialists from all over the world,” (3) “Center for Pyramid Studies is to be established in Sarajevo” and recommended (4) that “archaeological course at the graduate level is to be established in Bosnian universities as a support for the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids project.”

-          Professor of classical archaeology from the University of Alexandria Dr. Mona Haggag called this discovery “writing new pages in European and World history.”

 

YEAR 2009

 

-          Director of Institute for Geopolymers from France prof.dr. Joseph Davidovits performed electronic microscopic analysis on sample from the tumulus foundation and concluded that it was “cemented concrete material of artificial origin”.

-          Two more samples of organic material were discovered in underground tunnel “Ravne”. University of Upsala from Sweden determined age of 3.091 years for the first sample and Silesian University of Technology from Gliwice, Poland confirmed the age of 4.540 years for the second sample. This proved the ancient activities in the underground labyrinth.

-          Politecnico di Torino, Department for Chemistry, Italy, December 2009, “Binding material for the concrete was produced by clay heating process at high temperatures (caolinit, muscovite) and limestone (dolomite i calcite), and that technological process transformed them to the adhesive material”.

 

YEAR 2010

 

-          Institute for Physics “Rudjer Boskovic”, Zagreb, Croatia, February 2010, Roentgen diffraction analysis and phased analysis: “Sample from the megalith K-2 is an artificial ceramic material (quartz, calcite, muscovite

 

-          “Dr. Beton” Company, Zagreb, Croatia, April 2010, Radar tomography on megalithic blocks, Megalith K-2 was made in two layers (base+cover); there is an unknown “object” inside the megalith.

 

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- Organizing your seminar location and accommodation;
- Organizing meals in the best restaurants in the region.

 

"SB Research Group"

The group is composed of open-minded academic researchers who constantly collaborate with the Foundation carrying out excavations in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. We decided to call it "SB Research Group" by the name of the strange entity we encountered during our exploration and this is the first paper we publish together.

 

The photographs taken by the members of the group carry the new website’s logo, just designed for SB Research Group.

 

Paolo Debertolis

Sara Acconci

Lucia Krasovec Lucas

Valeria Hocza

 12 December 2010 - PDF File

 

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Tourist Attractions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the region

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